Archive for July, 2010

Experience the Navarasas

Posted by Freddy on Jul-31-2010

Rasa denotes an essential mental state and is the dominant emotional theme of a work of art or the primary feeling that is evoked in the person that views, reads or hears such a work. The concept of rasas is an outstanding contribution of Indian culture to the world of art and literature. India introduced this idea of Navarasa before the world and that made great influence on all most all forms of classical arts in Indian culture. Generally, the rasas are of nine types and they are collectively called Navarasa. Bharata Muni proposed Navarasa (nine emotions) in his treatise Natyasasthra. According to Natyashasthra, nine emotions arise in human beings as a response to the situations they are facing. Each rasa, according to Natyashasthra, has a presiding deity and a specific color.

These nine emotions are Shringara (Love), Bhaynaka (terror), Hasya (Laughter), Karuna (Kind-heartedness and compassion), Roudra (Anger), Veera (Courage), Bheebhatsya (Disgust), Adbutha (Surprise), and Shantha (Peace or Tranquility). Each of these nine emotions is the resultant of each Bhava, the gestures and facial expressions of the actors. Natyasasthra identifies each Rasa with the corresponding Bhava or mood. The Natyasastra vividly describe these bhavas to create each rasa.

In Natyasasthra, all these nine emotions have been connected with colors that signify all emotions or rasas. The Aura of a frightened person is black, and the aura of an angry person is red. The nine colors that signifies each emotions are Green (Shringara), White (Hasya), Grey (Karuna), Red (Roudra), Orange (Veera), Black (Bhayanaka), Blue (Bheebhatsya), Yellow (Adbutha) and White (Shantha).

A precious gifts of nature to man

Posted by Freddy on Jul-24-2010

The Indian gooseberry is one of the precious gifts of nature to man. Indian gooseberry popularly known as Amla is mainly found in India. The fruit is rich in Vitamin C and is considered as the best source of Vitamin C. All the parts of the amla plant are used for preparing Ayurvedic medicine including the fruit, seed, leaves, root, bark and flowers.
According to Ayurveda, amla fruit is sour and astringent in taste, with sweet, bitter and pungent secondary tastes. It may be used as a rasayana to promote longevity, and traditionally to enhance digestion, treat constipation, reduce fever, purify the blood, reduce cough, alleviate asthma, strengthen the heart, benefit the eyes, stimulate hair growth, enliven the body, and enhance intellect.
Ayurveda recommends taking a tonic made from this fruit through out the winter season. Fresh Amla has high concentration of Vitamin C in it. As it is rich in Vitamin C, this fruit helps to boost the functioning of immune system. This fruit helps in digestion and is used for making gastrointestinal Ayurvedic tonics. This fruit also assist body in excreting urinary waste.
The elements contained in this fruit are antiviral, raise the total protein level, and activate the adrenaline response. Amla also help in improving body weight. It is considered as a highly nutritious fruit. Apart from Vitamin C, this fruit also contains essential minerals.
In Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations, Indian gooseberry is a common constituent, and most notably is the primary ingredient in an ancient herbal rasayana called Chyawanprash. This formula, which contains 43 herbal ingredients as well as clarified butter, sesame oil, sugar cane juice, and honey, was first mentioned in the Charaka Samhita as a premier rasayana compound.

The Oedipus complex

Posted by Freddy on Jul-17-2010

The Oedipus complex, in psychoanalytic theory, is a group of largely unconscious ideas and feelings which center on the desire to possess the parent of the opposite sex and eliminate the parent of the same sex. The complex is named after a Greek mythical character Oedipus, who kills his father and marries his mother.

Classical theory considers the successful resolution of the Oedipus complex to be developmentally desirable, the key to the development of gender roles and identity. In classical theory, individuals who are fixated at the oedipal level are “mother-fixated” or “father-fixated”, and reveal this by choosing sexual partners who are discernible surrogates for their parent.

According to Sigmund Freud, the Oedipus complex is a universal phenomenon, built in phylogenetic, and is responsible for much unconscious guilt. Freud first suggested the existence of what he would later call the Oedipus complex in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). In this work, he describes a subconscious feelings in children of intense competition and even hatred toward the parent of the same sex, and feelings of romantic love toward the parent of the opposite sex. If these conflicting feelings were not successfully resolved, they would contribute to neurosis in later life.

Sigmund Freud used the name Oedipus complex to explain the origin of certain neurosis in childhood. It is defined as a male child’s unconscious desire for the exclusive love of his mother. This desire includes jealousy towards the father and the unconscious wish for that parent’s death. Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations, whereby behavior is not outside socially acceptable norms. It is also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, and thus those suffering from it are said to be neurotic.

Man made walls on rivers

Posted by Freddy on Jul-10-2010

A dam is a barrier that impounds water or streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Dams were first constructed in Mesopotamia and the Middle East, where dams were used to control the water level. The earliest known dam is sited in Jawa, which is situated in Jordan. Dams can be formed by natural causes and by the intervention of wildlife such as beavers. Dams are even formed by human agency.

Man-made dams are typically classified according to their size, structure and the purpose of dam. Based on size, dams are classified as large and major dams. International standards define large dams as higher than 15-20 meters and major dams over 150-250 meters in height. Based on structure and material used, dams are classified as timber dams, arch-gravity dams, embankment dams or masonry dams, with several subtypes.

Dams and hydroelectric projects are constructed to fulfill needs of human beings. These hydroelectric projects are generally considered as environmental friendly because it represents a clean and renewal source of energy. These projects are made with huge promises throwing light on the reward alone. But many a times the impacts of these dams turn out to be ridiculous.

The ecological system is the first that gets disrupted by the construction of these dams. Apart from all these factors these have many environmental issues related to them. These hydroelectric power plants result in submersion of extensive areas upstream of the dams, destroying biologically rich and productive lowland and riverine valley forests, marshland and grasslands. Many a times issues are roused due to the lack of study done before implementing the project.

Dam failures are generally catastrophic if the structure is breached or significantly damaged. The dam failures have been some of the largest manmade disasters in history. A good design and construction are not adequate guarantee of safety, sometimes some geological eruptions can pull down them down. Dams are used primarily for storage of water and retaining the same. There are flood gates used to release water as in when required and more over to control the water pressure present in the dam. The water that flows out of the dam is also used for producing electricity using hydroelectric power. What happens when a dam is ill built or not maintained properly, cracks will appear and the same can be very fatal as the dam can burst thus leading to destruction to life and property worth millions. We need to ensure that our dams are well kept and regular maintenance is done to avoid such catastrophes.

Voyage through the Vedas

Posted by Freddy on Jul-2-2010

Vedas, oldest scriptures of Hinduism, are written in Sanskrit. They are among the oldest sacred texts. Vedas include the most holy hymns and mantras. These mantras compiled together and form the four known as Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. It is very difficult to find out the exact period when these Vedas were written as these are considered to be orally passed on before they were written down.

Among the four Vedas, Rig veda is considered as the oldest one. The mantra of this veda considered to be the most important one. In Rig Veda, more than a thousand of mantras are arranged and written in ten circles, among which the tenth one is said to be most recent one. The hymns written in Rig Veda are dedicated to various deities. Some of the hymns also explain some phenomenon, concepts, some historical events mainly the struggle between the early Vedic people.

Sama Veda contains the hymns and many of these hymns are taken from Rig Veda. Sama Veda has melodies or music for the hymns written in Rig Veda. These music and melodies were meant for the priests who performed certain ceremonies. Sama Veda is also known as the Veda of Holy Songs.

Yajur Veda mainly aims at awakening the inner consciousness. This one was the main Veda used by the priests of the ancient India and it resembles the Egyptian book of the dead. This Veda also gives respect to various instruments used in sacrifice.
Atharva Veda is the fourth Veda. Atharva Veda contains many hymns from Rig Veda but also contain many magic spells. Atharva Veda is therefore not always accepted as Veda. The language used in Atharva Veda is simpler. The two main concepts mentioned in Atharva Veda are medicine and witchcraft. Atharva Veda is completely different from the other three Vedas.

The four Vedas thus play a major role in the Indian Hindu mythology as these are considered as the holy texts. These texts are used for performing the religious rituals of the Hindu religion. The Vedas are also said to be the best books of knowledge that exists in today’s world. The above-mentioned points just give a vague idea about the content given in the Vedas. Vedas are definitely an ocean of knowledge.